© 2010 PhysOrg.com Sustainable nuclear energy moves a step closer Citation: GE and Hitachi want to use nuclear waste as a fuel (2010, February 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-02-ge-hitachi-nuclear-fuel.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Conventional nuclear power plants in the US only harness around five percent of the energy of nuclear fuels. The reprocessing technique would separate nuclear waste into different types of fuels, some of which can be used in conventional nuclear power plants, and some of which can only be used in advanced fast neutron reactors. Reprocessing of nuclear waste to extract more useable fuel has been criticized in the US because it produces pure plutonium, which could be stolen and used to make nuclear weapons. To get around this difficulty, GE Hitachi’s proposed method produces a fuel that is much harder to steal.The GE Hitachi process separates wastes from conventional nuclear power plants into three streams, by applying voltage to a molten salt. The first waste material consists of the products of fission, which cannot be further used as fuel and will need to be stored, but the storage time required is reduced from tens of thousands of years to a few hundred years (although a small fraction of the material will still need to be stored for over 10,000 years). The second material is uranium that does not have enough fissile material to be used in the light water uranium reactors in the US, which need enriched uranium, but it can be used by deuterium (heavy water) uranium reactors, which are used in Canada. The final group of waste products is a mixture of transuranic elements including plutonium and neptunium. The plutonium is not separated from the other elements, and the mixture releases 1,000 times more heat and 10,000 times more neutrons than pure plutonium. This makes it much harder to steal, and therefore less of a security risk, and it is also much easier to detect. The mixture of transuranic elements can be used in nuclear reactors that use molten sodium as the coolant rather than water, and this type is used in Japan and a few other countries. GE Hitachi has designed a reactor known as the PRISM reactor that would be able to use the mixed fuel, but sodium cooled reactors have not been approved for use in the US.A GE Hitachi spokesman said previous US administrations had little interest in re-using spent nuclear fuel, but the Obama administration is increasing support for nuclear power and looking at possibilities such as reprocessing. If adopted, the proposal would significantly decrease the amount of dangerous nuclear waste that needs to be stored. Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — One of the world’s biggest providers of nuclear reactors, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (a joint venture of General Electric and Hitachi), wants to reprocess nuclear waste for use as a fuel in advanced nuclear power plants, instead of burying it in waste repositories such as that proposed at Nevada’s Yucca Mountain.
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The MR16 is used in the commercial sector by restaurants, retail sites, and museums. These are lighting’s especially demanding, finicky customers, as they need lighting to enhance their décor, inspire mood, highlight merchandise, and complement works of art.“It’s more difficult to do this MR16 light, so we choose to do this first to showcase our technology,” Eric Kim, CEO of Soraa, told Forbes. Beyond challenge, though, the commercial sector is a good business move because it will help the company to grow. Commercial customers have to think about initial costs and longer term payback in lighting, at prices that may turn off noncommercial customers. Retail owners, for example, depend on exceptionally good lighting systems to lure people into their shops.The company was started by lighting experts focused on work with LEDs and lasers. Shuji Nakamura, one of the founders, was key to the technology that gives Soraa its core competency. Nakamura is regarded as a pioneer in modern LED lighting; he is known for his work with gallium-nitride. The material gallium nitride (GaN) has been used in bright light-emitting diodes since the 1990s.“We believe that with GaN on GaN, we have truly entered the next chapter in LED technology: LED 2.0.” said Nakamura in a Wednesday news release.Soraa is betting its future on its different development approach to LED lighting to put it ahead of competition. The difference is in the LED crystal structure. Soraa’s technology enables the LED to generate more lumens per area. Soraa’s lamp is based on its trademarked “GaN on GaN” materials, “a perfect crystal structure,” according to the company. Translation: The Soraa team figured out a way to create a combination of gallium-nitride top layer on gallium-nitride substrate.The competitive difference is that LEDs based on dissimilar crystal structures elsewhere result in lower performance. Soraa’s pure GaN crystal is up to one thousand times purer than GaN on sapphire or GaN on silicon carbide substrates, according to the company. The MR16 will be available this quarter. Pricing information was not available at the time of this writing. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Bridgelux demonstrates silicon substrate LED that produces 135 lumens per watt Explore further More information: Soraa’s press release (PhysOrg.com) — Soraa, a Fremont, California company founded in 2008, this week launched its first product, a light that uses LEDS (light emitting diodes). The “Soraa LED MR16 lamp” is the “perfect” replacement for traditional halogen lamps, according to the release. The company says it is an ideal replacement for 50-watt halogen because the Soraa product delivers better beam and light quality. Soraa LED lamps use 75 percent less energy, deliver 10x lamp life, and produce higher quality light than halogen lamps, according to the company. Citation: Soraa LED light may dim 50-watt halogen rivals (2012, February 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-02-soraa-dim-watt-halogen-rivals.html
Explore further More information: Fluid-Filled Soft-Bodied Amoeboid Robot Inspired by Plasmodium of True Slime Mold, Advanced Robotics, Volume 26, Number 7, 2012 , pp. 693-707(15). dx.doi.org/10.1163/156855312X626316Abstract:This paper presents a fluid-filled soft-bodied amoeboid robot inspired by the plasmodium of the true slime mold. The significant features of this robot are 2-fold. (i) The robot has a fluid circuit (i.e., cylinders and nylon tubes filled with fluid), and a truly soft and deformable body stemming from real-time tunable springs — the former seals protoplasm to induce global physical interaction between the body parts and the latter is used for elastic actuators. (ii) A fully decentralized control using coupled oscillators with a completely local sensory feedback mechanism is realized by exploiting the global physical interaction between the body parts stemming from the fluid circuit. The experimental results show that this robot exhibits adaptive locomotion without relying on any hierarchical structure. The results obtained are expected to shed new light on the design scheme for autonomous decentralized control systems.via TechnologyReview (PhysOrg.com) — Takuya Umedachi has been working for several years to build a robot that can replicate the simple actions of the common slime mold, an organism that can move towards something it desires without benefit of a brain or central nervous system. Now Umedachi and his colleagues at Hiroshima University have built such a robot and have published the specifics of how it works in the journal Advanced Robotics. Robot fish found able to lead real fish (w/ video) The amoeboid robot as they call it has two main parts, an air filled balloon center surrounded by fluid filled cylinders. The cylinders are connected to one another via springs attached to force sensors on one end and a DC motor on the other. Each spring also has a winding/unwinding component to allow the spring to pull the cylinder when it’s in move mode. And that is one of the keys of movement for the amoeboid. Each cylinder has a move and stuck mode. When in move mode, the cylinder can be slid in the direction of the attractant. When it stuck mode, it adheres to the surface (via electromagnet) to prevent the cylinder from being pushed backwards when other cylinders around it are moving. To get it to move towards an attractant, coupled oscillators are used to create a distributed sensory feedback loop. The whole point of the amoeboid is its simplicity. It doesn’t require any programming or prior learning to do what it does, and that is just one thing. Move, slowly, bloblike, in the direction of the attractant. And because it’s soft-bodied, its shape alters automatically to allow it to fit though small spaces and once on the other side, to resume its most natural position. And while commercial applications are certainly limited to such things as delivering materials in hostile surroundings during an emergency, or providing sensor readings in a similar environment, they are beside the point. The real importance of the amoeboid is in the brilliance of its design and how what has been learned can be applied to other robotic applications. It’s not difficult, for example, to imagine future robots that launch an amoeboid when circumstances warrant, or the integration of amoeboid characteristics into household appliances to allow them to clean our floors without having to map everything out in advance. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Researchers replicate slime mold with brainless amoeboid robot that can move toward an attractant (2012, March 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-03-replicate-slime-mold-brainless-amoeboid.html © 2011 PhysOrg.com The amoeboid is clearly still in its infancy, but portends many new and exciting advances in the robotics field that will come about due to out-of-the-box type thinking as is clearly demonstrated by Umedachi and his team.
© 2013 Phys.org (Phys.org)—Physicists working at the University of Colorado have succeeded in demonstrating one of the major tenets of quantum mechanics—namely the Heisenberg uncertainty principle—at the macro level. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes how a small but still visible drum they built in their lab, outfitted with mirrors, a laser and a detector, demonstrated that it was not possible to measure a photon’s position and momentum simultaneously. It was Heisenberg who famously noted that it was impossible to measure the momentum of an object and its position at the same time. As an example, he pointed out that using a microscope to look at a single electron, would require shining light on it. Those photons would cause the electron to move slightly, changing its momentum. Up till now, researchers testing or demonstrating this principle have worked at the micro level because attempting to do so with objects large enough to be seen with the naked eye seemed impossible due to the many variables at play. In this new research, the team in Colorado showed that this not necessarily the case.They started by building a square drum frame out of silicon, with each side 0.5 millimeters long. They then stretched a thin film of silicon nitride over the skin to create the drum head. The drum was placed in a vacuum between two very tiny mirrors and was chilled to just 4 degrees above absolute zero to eliminate extraneous noise. The experiment was conducted by shooting a laser at the drum and measuring how much the head was distended by the photons striking it as they were bounced back and forth between the mirrors. As more photons struck the drum, greater fluctuations occurred in the measurements recorded, distorting the readings, and proving that the Heisenberg uncertainty principle can indeed be demonstrated with objects large enough to be seen with the naked eye.The results of the experiment could also have an impact elsewhere, as researchers in Washington and Louisiana are planning a similar experiment over a much more vast scale—they will be seeking to measure gravitationally waves, which the theory of relatively says, should cause a change in distance between two objects. Their experiment will involve the use mirrors as well, but instead of a small drum, they will be trying to measure what happens when two black holes merge. Journal information: Science More information: Science. Vol 339, February 13, 2013, p. 801. doi: 10.1126/science.1231282 Are you certain, Mr. Heisenberg? New measurements deepen understanding of quantum uncertainty This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Researchers demonstrate Heisenberg uncertainty principle at macro level (2013, February 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-02-heisenberg-uncertainty-principle-macro.html Explore further
Water purification device undergoing field trials in India and its performance evaluation. (A) Schematic diagram of the device. (B) Actual photograph of the device. Construction and assembly of the device are simple and can be done locally. The antimicrobial composition is used as granules and kept in the membrane filter. Carbon block is positioned just before the tap. Carbon block may also be used as a multilayer axial block, comprising adsorbents for specific regional contaminants such as arsenic, iron, and lead. Credit: PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1220222110 Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Citation: Nano-scientists develop new kind of portable water purification system (2013, May 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-05-nano-scientists-kind-portable-purification.html © 2013 Phys.org Scientists evaluate different antimicrobial metals for use in water filters (Phys.org) —Researchers at India’s Institute of Technology Madras have developed a new kind of portable water purification system based on nanoparticle filtration. In their paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team explains how their new device does its job—it employs nanoparticles to remove not just biological hazards, but toxic heavy metals as well. The researchers note that access to clean drinking water is still a major worldwide problem—making it available to everyone, they say, would save approximately 2 million lives a year (approximately 42.6 percent of deaths are due to diarrhea alone and impact mostly children). To help reach the UN millennium development goal of doubling the number of people with sustainable access to safe drinking water by 2015, the team has been applying nanoparticle technology to the problem. The system they have developed is a two-stage filtration process that provides 10 liters of clean water in just an hour’s time. The biggest challenge, the team says, was figuring out how to deliver silver ions into the water to be processed, without using any electricity. The process also had to use a minimal amount of silver ions to meet international safety standards. The answer, they say, was to use a new material that employs silver nanoparticles that are trapped in tiny cage-like structures made of other clay materials.Other nanoparticles are used to create other materials that serve as filters, killing microbes and sucking heavy metals out of the water, making it safe to drink or use for cooking. The first stage of the process kills viruses, bacteria and other dangerous micro-biota. The second stage absorbs heavy metals such as lead and arsenic.The result is an extremely inexpensive portable water purification device—the system cost is comparable to other portable filtration systems, but the processing itself comes to less than $3 per year. The filters are good for approximately one year (3,600 liters) and filtration can be run more than once per day if needed. The researchers believe their device is capable of providing all the drinking water a family of four would need.The researchers have not yet made it clear who will manufacture the new device or when it might be made available for sale. Explore further More information: Biopolymer-reinforced synthetic granular nanocomposites for affordable point-of-use water purification, PNAS, Published online before print May 6, 2013, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1220222110AbstractCreation of affordable materials for constant release of silver ions in water is one of the most promising ways to provide microbially safe drinking water for all. Combining the capacity of diverse nanocomposites to scavenge toxic species such as arsenic, lead, and other contaminants along with the above capability can result in affordable, all-inclusive drinking water purifiers that can function without electricity. The critical problem in achieving this is the synthesis of stable materials that can release silver ions continuously in the presence of complex species usually present in drinking water that deposit and cause scaling on nanomaterial surfaces. Here we show that such constant release materials can be synthesized in a simple and effective fashion in water itself without the use of electrical power. The nanocomposite exhibits river sand-like properties, such as higher shear strength in loose and wet forms. These materials have been used to develop an affordable water purifier to deliver clean drinking water at US $2.5/y per family. The ability to prepare nanostructured compositions at near ambient temperature has wide relevance for adsorption-based water purification. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
© 2013 Phys.org Explore further The development of the cell phone has led to new advances in both law enforcement and criminal evasion. Police officers use cell phones to communicate with one another, as do criminals. It didn’t take long, however, for the police to figure out that they could track criminals as they talk on their cell phones using triangulation of cell towers. To keep from getting caught, criminals began using new evasion tactics such as modifying the built-in ID code on their cell phone or swapping out SIM cards—doing so made it nearly impossible for law enforcement to track them down by their cell phone signals alone. This new advance by the engineers in Germany appears likely to thwart that strategy.Working at the Technical University of Dresden, engineers Jakob Hasse, Thomas, Gloe and Martin Beck found that each of the separate components inside a cell phone has a degree of error. When all of the errors are taken together, as seen in the digital signal sent to a cell tower, the result can be read as a unique digital signal—or fingerprint. That means that no matter what criminals do to their cell phone—short of swapping out internal components—their phones will continue to emit a unique signal that can be read by a device and used to separate it out from all the other cell phone signals. Once that’s done the location of the phone—and possibly the criminals—can be calculated using triangulation of cell towers.Unfortunately, a device to read and recognize the unique signature of cell phones is still in the research and development stage, though the engineers on the project report a nearly 98 percent success rate in correctly identifying a signal. Law enforcement would surely like to see that number bumped to 100 to avoid finding themselves occasionally raiding the wrong house. (Phys.org) —Law enforcement officials may soon have a new tool at their disposal—a device that can distinguish between cell phones based on their digital signal. In the never ending game of cat-and-mouse between law enforcement and criminals, this new advancement may give the good guys the upper hand—all due to a discovery by a team of engineers in Germany. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Forensic Identi?cation of GSM Mobile Phones, Jakob Hasse et al. (PDF)via Newscientist Overall Procedure of Feature Extraction. Credit: Forensic Identiﬁcation of GSM Mobile Phones, Jakob Hasse et al. Many US police use cell phones to track: study Citation: Engineers discover unique fingerprint for cell phones (2013, August 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-08-unique-fingerprint-cell.html
In an effort to keep the larger supraspheres from precipitating out of solution, Wang et al. replaced the remaining polyoxometalates at the cluster-water interface with thiolate-capping ligands. It is the chemical properties of these ligands that allowed for the selective uptake of certain hydrophobic guests over others. They experimented with three caps: a positively changed one, a negatively charged one, and mercapto-polyethylene glycol (PEG-SH). For their model hydrophobic guest, Wang, et al. used bisphenol A (BPA). Because PEG-S-capped supraspheres are soluble in both water and methylene chloride, they confirmed that guest uptake was due to hydrophobic effects. Adsorption properties were determined with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and 1H NMR. They confirmed that each suprasphere hosts the same number of BPA molecules and that the number of guests was around 2 million per suprasphere.They then explored host-guest properties with other hydrophobic guests. They tested azulene (a dye, TNT (an explosive), RDX (an explosive), alachlor (a common herbicide), para-xylene, and para-dichlorobenzene. At first, they did not observe guest uptake with TNT, which they attributed to kinetic effects. By changing the capping molecules from PEG-SH to a mixture of PEG-SH and hex-SH, they observed the uptake of over 2 million TNT or RDX molecules. This idea of kinetically controlling the uptake of certain guests was used to chemo-selectively adsorb BPA over TNT in a solution containing both molecules.Analysis of the suprasphere architecture indicated that there was an extensive internal hydrophobic porous system that allowed guests to diffuse throughout the suprasphere structure. The authors described the interior of the suprasphere as a percolated network of hydrophobic holes that can house the more than 2 million guest molecules.Gold nanoparticle supraspheres are a relatively new area for host-guest chemistry. This research shows how functionalizing the surface of the nanoparticles with a hydrophilic leaving group will allow the formation of water soluble supraspheres that are able to easily and selectively adsorb and release guests. Citation: Water soluble gold nanoparticle supraspheres can hold 2 million guest molecules (2016, December 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-12-soluble-gold-nanoparticle-supraspheres-million.html Journal information: Nature Nanotechnology Explore further (Phys.org)—Researchers from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel and École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland have developed porous 200 nm supraspheres from gold nanoparticles whose surface is functionalized with polyoxometalate leaving groups that allows for dispersion in pure water. The hydrophobic effect promotes the spontaneous adsorption of alkyl and alkylaromatic guests. © 2016 Phys.org a, Schematic showing how citrate ligands are replaced by AlW11O399- (1), to give 1-protected Au NPs. A reaction with hexanethiol then leads to the formation of colloidal supraspheres. The structure of 1 is shown in polyhedral notation: W(VI)-centred polyhedra are in blue (oxygen atoms are present at all vertices) and the centrally located, four-coordinate Al(III) ion is in red; b, Cryo-TEM images illustrating colloidal suprasphere formation: (i) and (ii) show individual citrate- and 1-protected Au NPs, respectively; (iii) shows a representative intermediate-sized colloidal suprasphere, with a radius of around 45 nm. Scale bar, 10 nm; c, The uptake of bisphenol A (black dots) by the PEG capped supraspheres from aqueous solution; d, Illustration (drawn to scale) of an Oh-symmetry hole hosting approximately 1 nm bisphenol A guests. Credit: Wang et al. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In their research article in Nature Nanotechnology, Wang et al. demonstrate that their leaving groups are easily displaced by hexane thiol, allowing for the formation of suprasphere colloids in water and uptake of around 2 million hydrophobic guests, a mass-per-volume level that rivals zeolites and metal-organic frameworks. Furthermore, by tailoring the surface of the suprasphere, they were able to chemo-selectively control the uptake of guest molecules.While there have been several gold nanoparticle suprasphere studies reported in the literature, none of them explore the hydrophobic effect for host-guest interactions. Those interactions largely arise from the formation of aggregates. Supraspheres are gold nanoparticle colloids that are held together by weak interactions between alkylthiolate ligands, which form a hydrophobic monolayer around the nanoparticles. This results in aggregates in pure water.However, this same hydrophobic effect can be used to promote host-guest interactions. Supraspheres are highly porous compounds that can serve as a reservoir of hydrophobic cavities for non-polar guests in an aqueous environment.To avoid the problem of uncontrolled precipitation, Wang et al. functionalized the surface of the gold nanoparticles with negatively charged cluster anion, AlW11O399-. They then incrementally added small amounts of hexane thiols (hex-SH) to the solution. Domains of hydrophobic thiol clusters and hydrophilic polyoxometalate clusters formed on the surface of the gold nanoparticles. This eventually leads to the controlled hydrophobic assembly of supraspherical clusters, as evidenced by surface plasmon resonance studies and in situ imaging by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. These clusters are soluble in water.Importantly, because there is a linear correlation between the addition of hex-SH and the average hydrodynamic radius, they were able to tailor supracluster formation. Additional studies confirmed supraspheres were formed in water, but that larger supraspheres (approximately 200 nm) were less stable than intermediate-sized ones (approximately 150 nm). Energetics of the adsorption of ethanol on calcite nanoparticles More information: Yizhan Wang et al. Host–guest chemistry with water-soluble gold nanoparticle supraspheres, Nature Nanotechnology (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2016.233AbstractThe uptake of molecular guests, a hallmark of the supramolecular chemistry of cages and containers, has yet to be documented for soluble assemblies of metal nanoparticles. Here we demonstrate that gold nanoparticle-based supraspheres serve as a host for the hydrophobic uptake, transport and subsequent release of over two million organic guests, exceeding by five orders of magnitude the capacities of individual supramolecular cages or containers and rivalling those of zeolites and metal–organic frameworks on a mass-per-volume basis. The supraspheres are prepared in water by adding hexanethiol to polyoxometalate-protected 4 nm gold nanoparticles. Each 200 nm assembly contains hydrophobic cavities between the estimated 27,400 gold building blocks that are connected to one another by nanometre-sized pores. This gives a percolated network that effectively absorbs large numbers of molecules from water, including 600,000, 2,100,000 and 2,600,000 molecules (35, 190 and 234 g l−1) of para-dichorobenzene, bisphenol A and trinitrotoluene, respectively.
Reaction profile for methane sulfonation. Pressure of CH4 is plotted versus time under (A) standard conditions using 0.9 mol % electrophilic initiator (Figure 2, entry 2) and (B) successive additions of CH4 (Fig 2, entry 3). The inset in (A) shows a zoomed-in view of region i. Credit: Science, doi: 10.1126/science.aav0177. Direct functionalization of methane to form value-added products is a challenge due to potential overoxidation in many reaction environments and sulfonation is an attractive approach to achieve the selectivity of interest. In the practical process, Díaz-Urrutia and Ott produced methanesulfonic acid (MSA) using only two main reactants; methane and sulfur trioxide. They achieved 99 percent selectivity and yield of MSA in the work. The scientists based the electrophilic initiator on a sulfonyl peroxide derivative, which they protonated under superacidic conditions to produce a highly electrophilic oxygen atom capable of activating a C-H bond of methane. They proposed mechanistic studies to support the formation of a cation methenium (CH3+)as a key intermediate during the reaction. The proposed method is scalable with reactors connected in a series to prospectively produce up to 20 metric tons of MSA per year. While large-scale fracking techniques and biogas production has provided access to large quantities of inactive methane, the largest chemical transformation of methane remains confined to the highly energy demanding Fischer-Tropsch processes. At present, methane is industrially converted to Syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, to form useful products including methanol and Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbons, which are synthesized in subsequent steps. The production of syngas is severely cost-limiting, however; “MegaMethanol” plants or the Fischer-Tropsch pearl complex in Qatar exceed 10 million metric tons (MT) of the total annual hydrocarbon production. As a result, the direct conversion of methane to valuable products on an economically viable technique are of extreme interest. Methane is a major component in natural gas and one of the most difficult molecules for controlled activation, since most of the product results in carbon dioxide. The industrial conversion of methane to alcohol derivatives is typically based on a circuitous route that begins with overoxidation to carbon monoxide. Although more direct approaches have shown promise in highly acidic media at a small scale, they are not quite cost-effective. In a recent study now published in Science, Christian Díaz-Urrutia and Timo Ott at the R&D department of Grillo-Werke AG Company describe a reaction at a pilot-plant scale that directly combined methane (CH4) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to form methanesulfonic (CH4O3S) acid without by-products. The reaction appeared to proceed via a cationic chain mechanism initiated by adding a low concentration of sulfonyl peroxide, propagated by methenium (CH3+) molecules. To afford pure MSA, Díaz-Urrutia and Ott completed the process by a final distillation step. They then recycled the remaining mixture of sulfuric acid and MSA to the first reactor for continued regeneration of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid (SO3 and H2SO4). Using the four reaction chambers of the setup, the scientists were able to produce 200 kg of pure MSA per week, amounting to two to three metric tons in 80 days. In this way, the demonstrated combination of high selectivity, conversion and atom economy made the process ideal for large-scale valorization of the readily available methane and sulfur trioxide reagents. If this new process of methanesulfonic acid becomes successful in the market, cheaper reagents will be able to replace the mineral acids presently in use. However, even if the production of MSA were to increase dramatically, the amount of methane consumed in the process would still be dwarfed by the amounts flared. Nevertheless, the work of Díaz-Urrutia and Ott predicts a new synthetic chemical process to synthesize an interesting chemical, allowing the scientists to envision a range of value-added products to be derived from methane or higher alkanes using this route of superacid chemistry in the future. GC-FID Chromatograms. A) GC-FID chromatogram of the gas phase of the reactor (100 bar) before sulfonation of methane has occurred. B) GC-FID chromatogram of the gas phase after (~40 bar) the sulfonation of methane has occurred (16 h, fuming sulfuric acid 36%, 500C). Credit: Science, doi: 10.1126/science.aav0177. More information: Christian Díaz-Urrutia et al. Activation of methane to CH3+: A selective industrial route to methanesulfonic acid, Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aav0177 Ferdi Schüth. Making more from methane, Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw7738 Christopher D. Elvidge et al. The potential role of natural gas flaring in meeting greenhouse gas mitigation targets, Energy Strategy Reviews (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.esr.2017.12.012 Eric C. D. Tan et al. Reduction of greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions by direct conversion of associated flare gas to synthetic fuels at oil wellheads, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering (2018). DOI: 10.1007/s40095-018-0273-9 (A) Proposed ionic reaction mechanism for the C–H activation of CH4 in the selective production of MSA (Methanesulfonic acid). (B) Advantages of the cationic pathway over the radical pathway. T, temperature. Credit: Science, doi: 10.1126/science.aav0177 Explore further Making methane into more than fuel. Different commercialization pathways for methane, including the new process by Díaz-Urrutia and Ott. Commercial demand for products that would use the amount of methane that is flared exists only for compounds usable as fuels (methanol or higher hydrocarbons). Credit: Science, doi: 10.1126/science.aav0177 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Sulfonation of methane to MSA. (A) Schematic of the Díaz-Urrutia and Ott process. The reaction proceeds as a cascade through reactors connected in series. The pilot plant could produce up to 20 metric tons of MSA per year. The excess SO3 is quenched in reactor Q, the CH4 excess stream and the MSA/H2SO4 sump stream are recycled back to reactor 1, and the MSA-enriched mixture is distilled in column D to obtain pure MSA. (B) The concentration of MSA increases as it passes through the reactors. (C) Oblong quartz window reactor with gas impeller, for improved CH4 mixing. Credit: Science, doi: 10.1126/science.aav0177. © 2019 Science X Network Citation: Methane oxidation on the plus side – A selective industrial route to methanesulfonic acid (2019, April 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-04-methane-oxidation-side-industrial-route.html In this context, the potential to sulfonate methane (CH4) to methanesulfonic acid (CH4O3S, MSA) has achieved substantial attention due to the abundance of both raw materials and the ability for its rapid integration into existing industrial chemical processes. MSA is biodegradable and nonoxidizing with potential applications in metal recycling, energy storage and biodiesel production. Preceding work on methanesulfonation suffered from low yields and conversions, due to free-radical recombination, resulting in undesired side-products such as ethane, rendering the methods unsuitable for large-scale production. Technically, the balance between reactivity and selectivity required by an industrial process can be provided by superacid chemistry. Díaz-Urrutia and Ott reported on the treatment of oleum (20 to 60 percent sulfur trioxide) with CH4 at approximately 500C using less than 1 mol percentage of the electrophilic initiator to form MSA with 99 percent yield and 99 percent selectivity. CH4(g) + SO3(l) → CH3SO3H(l) Journal information: Science Since the initial results were very promising, the scientists built a pilot plant facility and tested the economic and technical feasibility of industrial scale MSA production. Díaz-Urrutia and Ott constructed the plant with a projected capacity of 20 metric tons/year of MSA production, based on their laboratory-scale batch reactions, and accounted for methane solubility and recycling, as well as for the concentration of sulfur trioxide and methane. This configuration allowed the scientists to constantly increase the concentration of MSA as the reaction mixture passed through the reactors. When they used gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) to monitor the samples, they did not detect the presence of higher alkanes in the recycled stream of methane or any other radical recombination products, allowing its direct use as feedback stock for the cascade reaction. The scientists first studied the reaction in a batch system to optimize experimental conditions and gain further insight into the reaction mechanism. For the electrophilic initiator, they used monomethylsulfonylperoxide sulfuric acid (MMSP) to improve technical feasibility. For increased productivity, they used a four-liter reactor instead of a 400-mL reactor, owing to larger quantities of CH4 forming in the headspace of the larger reactor. The scientists were thus able to maintain constant amounts of methane throughout the reaction for higher yields of MSA. They used an optimal temperature of 500C to achieve more than 99 percent selectivity towards MSA, whereas previous radical pathways had similar results at higher temperatures (850C) due to thermal decomposition of the sulfonyl peroxide electrophilic initiator. Low-temperature experiments could also offer high conversion and MSA selectivity, but required longer reaction times. Díaz-Urrutia and Ott comparatively provided insights to support a non-radical mechanism in the present work. When the scientists examined the reaction profile of the experiment, they observed an induction period immediately after addition of the electrophilic reactor, where the amount of MSA (product) was proportional to the initial quantity of MMSP (initiator). At stage two of the reaction profile, they observed the solubility of CH4 decrease with increasing pressure in the reactor. The activation energy of the process was determined to be 111±1 kJ/mol, similar to those previously reported. The described cationic pathway occurred under very specific conditions. The researchers achieved high selectivity through electronic changes in electrophilic substitutions, as opposed to the previously reported free-radical based atom abstraction reactions. A new way to directly convert methane to methanol using gold-palladium nanoparticles
Fatburger is a chain that has been associated with incredible burgers since 1952. Spread across the world, the chain made its entry into India this year. And greedy as we are, we could not wait to check them out. The joint at Cyberhub has a cozy American diner type feel to it. Makes you feel comfortable the very moment you walk in and grab a menu. We started off with the Amritsari Onion Rings that come with a generous sprinkling of Tikka masala that adds a very nice zing. We also had the chicken wings in the tangy Barbeque Chipotle sauce which comes to you with the blue cheese dip. Very well made. Also Read – CBI examines former ISRO chief RadhakrishnanWe obviously made very sure we kept space for the burgers! We picked the Fat Greek, the Red Scorcher and the Tenderloin burgers and added fried egg and bacon to it. Fatburger has an incredible thing called the Fatstack – which basically means that they add a second patty to the burger. So the normal buger gains a good few inches in height thanks to the juicy second patty! What’s not to love?The incredible mouthfull along with the runny friend egg and bacon – we were in burger heaven. And handsdown this place has the best value-for-money burgers in the Capital and NCR. At the prices they have, what they serve is nothing short of incredible. Meal for two comes to about Rs 800 (without taxes).
Art Heritage Collection – a show that displays the collection of designer soft furnishing items like bed linen, cushion covers, dining mats, etc. inspired by the traditional art of the medieval period and nineteenth century British period is being organised in the Capital. The event that started off on 15 October is conceptualised by Anjali Jain .Aesthetically designed, these colourful items are influenced by the miniature paintings of the Mughal and Rajput style. Some are also inspired by the exotic geometrical designs of the jaalis and jharokhas of the Rajput and Muslim architecture. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The other half is inspired by the Bengal woodcut designs of the nineteenth century. Paintings by the British and Indian artists reflecting the lifestyle of those bygone days are also included in the designs.The collection is a medley of chirpy bird designs, the exotic romance of the Kishangarh and Rajput paintings, the majesty and exuberance of the Mughal paintings and the geometric perfection and appeal of the Mughal architecture. The show could perhaps be highlighted by a song and dance Ballet mainly Kathak based showing the Radha- Krishna romance, the court dances of the mughals easing out to the times of the nautch girls of the era and western ballroom dances of the Sahibs.Where: Select City Walk, Saket When: On till 19th october TIMINGS: 11 am to 11 pm
Porcelain paintings were very expensive and only the nobility in Europe could afford it, so much so that porcelain came to be called White Gold. Porcelain objects were first brought to Europe by Marco Polo from China. They were highly prized and were considered very precious especially since nothing like this existed in Europe. Today several old schools such as Sevres and Limoges in France, Meissen in Germany, Herond in Hungary, Royal Copenhagen in Denmarkand Vista Alegre in Portugal continue to produce hand painted pieces for their customers worldwide. The Capital’s tryst with Porcelain paintings comes through an art exhibition White Gold – The Romance of Porcelain at the India Habitat Centre from February 10 – 12. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The exhibition aims to showcase both the European and American styles of painting as well as share some modern directions this art form has taken. In Europe, USA and Latin America porcelain painting is a vibrant and alive art with many painters and followers. It is still a relatively unknown art form in Delhi. Keeping this in mind, the three porcelain painters have decided to come together to exhibit in this group show. Rita Gharekhan is an international award winning porcelain artist. She is a certified artist and teacher of the International Porcelain Artists and Teachers, Inc. based in USA. She studied the classical Nyon style of porcelain painting in Switzerland. In the US, she learnt the naturalistic style and combined these and other techniques such as the Indian miniature style to create a variety of designs and effects on porcelain. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThese include portraits, still life, landscapes apart from flowers and modernistic motifs. She has exhibited in several cities in the US as well as at the United Nations in New York. She has also had solo exhibitions in New York and in Delhi at the India International Centre as well as Lalit Kala Akademi. Manju Sinha has held several solo exhibitions in London, New York, Mumbai and New Delhi. Her exquisite pieces of this amazing art include vases, lamps, wall murals etc. Sinha draws her inspiration from nature and her work displays wonderful flora, fauna and landscapes from around the world. She also brings a touch of her Indian heritage with depictions of Buddha, Krishna and Ganesha in her work. She has also recently started working with glass Mosaics to expand her repertoire. “My canvas is white porcelain of various sizes and shapes in form of vases, wall plates, lamps, bowls, trays and even the humblest, mug study the shape of your canvas before deciding on the composition. Form, motive, colour must be in complete harmony,” she said. Madhu Bhalla Ahluwalia started learning Porcelain painting in 1983 in Copenhagen, Denmark. She continued her studies in the early 1990’s in Lisbon, Portugal. After a gap, wherein she was working in the corporate sector, she restarted porcelain painting in New Delhi, India in 2009. Many of her pieces have come about as a result of blending various techniques in unusual ways. She paints in both the European and American styles. Madhu has travelled extensively all over the world and lived in Europe, USA, South Asia and China. She tries to find designs and ideas from all over the world to incorporate in her porcelain painting, it also provides the inspiration for her experimentation. She had her first solo exhibition at the India International Centre in June-July 2013, sponsored by the IIC.
Kolkata: The power tariff in West Bengal remained unchanged for 2017-18 despite rise in fuel costs, the state’s Electricity Regulatory Commission (WBERC) said today. “After review, we have not increased the tariff for 2017-18 keeping the interest of consumers in mind, in spite of huge pressure from the major utilities to increase the tariff,” WBERC chairman R N Sen told PTI. Private utility the CESC and the state run West Bengal State Electricity Distribution Company Limited (WBSEDCL) have put pressure on the Commission to hike the tariff due to rise in fuel costs, he said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killed The CESC covers Kolkata and Howrah, while the WBSEDCL caters to the consumers of rest of the state. The WBERC had earlier declared the 2017-18 tariff as per multi-year tariff scheme, but based on demand by the utilities, the tariff is reviewed but the tariffs remained unchanged. The CESC had asked for a revised tariff of around Rs 8.40 per unit and WBSEDCL had sought about Rs 7.70 per unit. But the average power tariff of WBSEDCL remained unaltered at Rs 7.12 per unit, while that of the CESC remained unchanged at Rs 7.31 per unit. Tariff for the 2018-19 is yet to be announced. State Power Minister Shobhandeb Chatterjee said, “We are happy that the Commission has not put any additional burden on consumers. We will still be paying subsidy for earlier rise, upto 300 units.”
Kolkata: Two drug dealers were arrested with 275 grams of brown sugar here, a Kolkata Police officer said on Wednesday. “Two drug dealers, Sk.A. Latifuddin (37), and Sk. Raja (47), were arrested from 8A Royd Street at around 11.55 p.m. on Tuesday,” Joint Commissioner of Kolkata Police Praveen Tripathi said. “They were involved in selling the drugs to youngsters and club-goers in the city.”
The ongoing theatre extravaganza in the Capital city is receiving phenomenal response from the audience. Offering a variety of performances by young and old artists, the 21-day long festival will see following plays on February 8: CHHAU Bahumukh Chahmukh Open Lawn 6.00 pm Director: Sapan Kumar Acharya Group: Acharya Chhau Nrutya Bichitra, Jharkhand Language: Non- Verbal Duration: 1hr 15 mins THE OPEN COUPLE Shri Ram Centre 4.00 pm Also Read – Add new books to your shelfPlaywright: Dario Fo and Franca Rame Director: Sara Zaker Group: Nagorik Natya Sampradaya, Bangladesh Language: Bengali Duration: 1 hr PAGLA GHODA LTG 5.30 pm Playwright: Badal Sircar Director: Bipin Kumar Group: Yuva Rangmanch, Ranchi Language: Hindi Duration: 1 hr 45 mins BUXI JAGABANDHU Kamani 7.00 pm Playwright: Manoranjan Das Director: Debabrata Pattanayak Group: Dynamic Platform, Bhubaneshwar Language: Odiya Duration: 1 hr 45 mins KHAMOSHI SILI SILI Abhimanch 8.30 pm Playwright: Joseph Stein Director: Suresh Sharma Group: NSD Repertory Company, New Delhi Language: Hindi Duration: 2 hrs 20 mins
Punjab National Bank, India’s largest Public Sector Bank, celebrated the International Women’s Day. Senior representatives of PNB Prerna, an association of wives of the senior officials and senior lady officials of the Bank, felicitated women achievers from different walks of life. Dr Jayanti Mehta, President, PNB Prerna, along with other senior members of the association, including Vice-Presidents L Vijitha, Meera Devi, and Madhu Nagpal, encouraged a packed house of female employees at the Bank’s head office in Dwarka to take inspiration from these successful women and carve their own niche. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfSpeaking at the event, Dr Jayanti Mehta, President, PNB Prerna, said, “Women’s Day is a reminder of women’s contribution in the world, and I feel proud to be sharing this day with such inspiring women. I feel we must encourage the women who have broken the proverbial glass ceiling in all spheres taken the baton forward. Be it sports, leadership or artists, Indian women have made the country proud. And, female employees at PNB should take inspiration from them, and create their own paths of success.” Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveWomen coming from different fields including Ipsita Behera, Artist and lawyer; Vankadarath Saritha, India’s First Female DTC Bus Driver; Dr Jyoti Nanda, Counselor; Deepa Goyal, Educationalist; Lakshmi Sharan Singh, Child Rights Activist; Sulochana Mehar, Educationalist; and Entrepreneurs like Rajinikant Verma, Shashi, and Sapna Sharma were felicitated at the event, which had an attendance of over 250 people. PNB Prerna is a nine-year-old arm of the PNB, which aims to strengthen the ties of the Bank with the society and works toward fulfilling the bank’s corporate social responsibility. This association PNB Women Welfare Association (PNBWWA) was formally formed in 2010 with the motive to carry out the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) commitments of Punjab National Bank.
Contrary to popular perception, researchers have found that evening exercise is as good as a morning workout. A study published in shows that the effect of exercise may differ depending on the time of day it is performed. “There appear to be rather significant differences between the effect of exercise performed in the morning and evening and these differences are probably controlled by the body’s circadian clock,” said the team of researchers. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf”Morning exercise initiates gene programmes in the muscle cells, making them more effective and better capable of metabolising sugar and fat. Evening exercise, on the other hand, increases whole-body energy expenditure for an extended period of time,” the researchers added. For the study, the research team examined mice and found that exercise in the morning results in an increased metabolic response in skeletal muscle, while exercise later in the day increases energy expenditure for an extended period of time. The researchers have measured a number of effects in the muscle cells, including the transcriptional response and effects on the metabolites. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe results show that responses are far stronger in both areas following exercise in the morning and it is likely to be controlled by a central mechanism involving the protein HIF 1-alpha, which directly regulates the body’s circadian clock. Morning exercise appears to increase the ability of muscle cells to metabolise sugar and fat and this type of effect interests the researchers in relation to people with severe overweight and type 2 diabetes.
A fashion show on hospitality industry was organised on August 9, 2019, at India Expo Centre & Mart, Greater Noida. In the show, models showcased different hospitality industry related dresses to be used by hotels. The categories were chef uniforms, receptionist, house keeping, security, to name a few. The highlight of the show was uniform of stewards and bar tenders. The event was held as part of second edition of IHE’19, in which master chefs from across the world are hosting culinary classes. The 4-day expo has received phenomenal response from the audience so far and is expected to attract more visitors on the last day.
A part of a U.S. Destroyer hit by a Japanese mine in World War II was finally discovered in the waters off the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, almost 75 years to the day since it was sunk. Sonar and video have shown the stern of the USS Abner Read, torn off the destroyer on August 18, 1943, some 290 feet below the surface of the Bering Sea, which is near the island of Kiska in Alaska.A NOAA-funded team of scientists from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego and the University of Delaware discovered the missing 75-foot section.USS Abner Read (DD-526), 1943.Seventy-one U.S. Navy Sailors were lost in the aftermath of the blast during this early campaign of World War II. For the families of the sailors, the final resting place of those loved ones lost in the predawn hours of August 18th had remained unknown.On July 17, 2018, the team of scientists from Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego and the University of Delaware discovered the missing 75-foot stern section in 290 feet of water off of Kiska, one of only two United States territories to be occupied by foreign forces in the last 200 years.Sidscan Sonar of Abner Read Stern Image courtesy of Kiska Alaska’s Underwater Battlefield expedition.“This is a significant discovery that will shed light on this little-known episode in our history,” said retired Navy Rear Adm. Tim Gallaudet, Ph.D., Acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA administrator. “It’s important to honor these U.S. Navy Sailors who made the ultimate sacrifice for our nation.”The Abner Read was on patrol at about 1:50 a.m. Alaska time when the massive explosion — which has always been presumed to be from a Japanese mine — ripped the destroyer apart. Somehow the crew kept the main part of Abner Read’s hull watertight, and two nearby Navy ships towed it back to port.USS Abner Read (DD-526) lost most of her stern to a mine explosion in August 1943.“This was catastrophic damage that by all rights should have sunk the entire ship,” said Sam Cox, Curator of the Navy and director of the Naval History and Heritage Command.The destroyer was repaired and went on to fight in several battles in the Pacific before being destroyed in November 1944 by a Japanese dive bomber in a kamikaze attack during the battle of Leyte Gulf. Abner Read received four battle stars for her World War II service.Kiska Island Survey Areas. Image courtesy of CORDC, Scripps Institution of Oceanography.Finding the ship’s lost stern was a chief goal of the July mission to document the underwater battlefield off Kiska. In addition to NOAA and Scripps, the project was supported by Project Recover, a public-private partnership that uses 21st century science and technology and archival and historical research to find the final underwater resting places of Americans missing in action since WWII.Multibeam of Abner Read Stern. Image courtesy of Kiska Alaska’s Underwater Battlefield expedition.Historians have shown new interest in studying battles on Kiska and Attu, the Aleutian islands that were attacked and occupied by as many as 7,200 Japanese forces from June 1942 to mid-August 1943, but this Kiska mission was the first to thoroughly explore the underwater portion of the battlefield.The number 5 (aft deck) five-inch gun of the USS Abner Read imaged via the project’s remotely operated vehicle. Image courtesy of Kiska: Alaska’s Underwater Battlefield expedition.Many ships, aircraft and submarines from both the United States and Japan were lost during the 15-month campaign to reclaim this corner of America. Now, recent advancements in undersea technology, many developed by the Office of Naval Research, are helping to reveal the forgotten histories of long-ago valor.After multibeam sonar mounted to the side of the research ship Norseman II identified a promising target, the team sent down a deep-diving, remotely operated vehicle to capture live video for confirmation.Wreckage of the USS Abner Read. Image courtesy of Kiska: Alaska’s Underwater Battlefield expedition.“There was no doubt,” said expedition leader Eric Terrill, an oceanographer at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and co-founder of Project Recover. “We could clearly see the broken stern, the gun and rudder control, all consistent with the historical documents.”Read another story from us: Point Honda – The Largest Peacetime Naval Accident in U.S. HistoryAlong with the Abner Read’s stern, a dozen Japanese ships, two Japanese submarines, and numerous downed American airplanes are believed to be in the local waters, according to Mark Moline of the University of Delaware in an interview with the Washington Post.Nancy Bilyeau, a former staff editor at Entertainment Weekly, Rolling Stone, and InStyle, has written a trilogy of historical thrillers for Touchstone Books. For more information, go to www.nancybilyeau.com.
State of the art technology is allowing us to look back into the past with more detail and depth than ever before by actually creating a forensic facial reconstruction of a Neolithic dog. The canine was believed to have lived around 4,500 years ago. It was similar to a collie in size and seemingly quite like a wolf in appearance. It was buried, alongside around 20 other dogs and a small group of humans, in the Orkney Islands of Scotland. The dog’s remains were found over a century ago and preserved over the years until today’s modern technology was able to shed new light on the bones.Orkney Islands. Photo by Sentinel CC BY-SA 3.0-igoThe Guardian has reported that this dog is the first to ever undergo forensic facial reconstruction. Its likeness, which was commissioned by the National Museum of Scotland in conjunction with Historic Environment Scotland (HES), will be placed on display for the general public in the Orkney Islands in the months to come.Steve Farrar, a representative of HES, released a statement in which he detailed the alleged importance of dogs to Neolithic peoples. We all know that dogs are popular household pets today and can be used in various jobs like aiding the blind and sniffing out illegal substances, and it seems like they had a part to play in this ancient Orkney society as well.Cuween Hill Chambered Cairn. Photo by © Historic Environment Scotland.Just as the Ancient Egyptians saw cats as sacred and significant, Farrar suggested that these “dog people” might have seen dogs in a special light. The remains of the dogs and people were found at Cuween Hill Chambered Cairn. Sky News revealed that archaeologists have dated this burial mound to around 3,000 BC, but it is believed that the dog was buried there around 2,500 BC.The fact that the dog was buried so many years after the tomb was made suggests that it could have been a very special resting place for the community, perhaps used for ceremonies and rituals.Model created from dog skull discovered at Cuween Hill Chambered Cairn, OrkneyPhoto by © Historic Environment Scotland.There’s a lot we can learn from this discovery, with both historians and scientists having their own theories. The fact that the dogs and humans were buried together may infer that the community believed in an afterlife for both species, and it was clear that the Orkney residents must have had a lot of respect for dogs, perhaps using them for hunting or to help guard their farms.Related Video: 3,500 Year Old Prehistoric Friezes Unearthed Near LimaThe Scotsman revealed that in order to actually make the facial reconstruction of the dog, forensic artist Amy Thornton had to draw over a CT scan, effectively making a 3D image of the canine’s skull. Clay was then used to build up the outer layers of skin and hair onto the skeletal foundation, effectively creating a detailed model of the dog’s head.Photo by © Historic Environment Scotland.The model was then cast in silicone, and Thornton applied the finishing touches of fur in the same style and color of a European grey wolf. Thornton revealed that this process was similar to the ways in which facial reconstruction technology is used to recreate lifelike approximations of human remains, but she added that there was a lot less data for her to work with when preparing a canine reconstruction. There’s been a lot of scientific and historical investigation into the Neolithic people of Orkney in recent years.Cuween Hill Chambered Cairn. Photo by adrazahl CC BY-SA 3.0In 2018, for example, HES unveiled 3D digital images showing what the tomb actually looked like, giving interested users a chance to explore the tomb on their computers.Read another story from us: Sea Creature Found is the Stuff of Tiny NightmaresThis canine facial reconstruction is just the latest in a fascinating series of discoveries and breakthroughs, giving us a powerful and thought-provoking glimpse into a time long ago.